Teacher of English of “Language Teaching centre” in Kyzylorda region, master of pedagogical sciences
Операциялық жаттығулар 4 дағдыны, яғни сөйлеу, жазу, оқу, тыңдап түсіну және фонетикалық, лексикалық, грамматикалық сияқты 3 шеберлікті қамтиды,сонымен бірге шет тілін дамытуда оқушылар тарапынан сұранысқа ие болып саналады. Зерттеудің мақсаты ағылшын сабағында операциялық жаттығуды қолданудың маңыздылығын көрсету. Зерттеу методологиясы ағылшын тілін оқытуда қолданылатын эмперикалық әдіске негізделеді және нәтижелер жаттығуларды орындаудағы оқушылардың дәрежесін көрсетеді. Операциялық жаттығулар мұғалімдер, студенттер мен оқушылар тарапынан шет тілі сабағында қолданылатын болады.
Кілттік сөздер:операциялық жаттығулар, рецептивті, репродуктивті, жаттығулар жүйесі, сөйлеу қызметі.
Операционные упражнения, которые включают 4 навыков, как разговорный, письменный, чтение и аудирование, а также 3 умения, как фонетический, лексический, грамматический, которые ведут к развитию иностранного языка,востребован студентами. Цель исследования – объяснить важность использование операционных упражнений на уроках английского языка. Методология исследования основана на эмпирическом методе, которая будет использована в обучении иностранного языка результаты которых, представят уровень учеников при выполнении задач. Операционные упражнения будут использованы учителями, студентами и учениками на уроках иностранного языка.
Ключевые слова:операционные упражнения, рецептивный, репродуктивный, система упражнений, разговорная деятельность.
Operational exercises which include 4 skills such as speaking, writing, reading, listening and 3 habits like phonetic, lexical, grammatical will lead to improve foreign language are required by students. The aim of this study is to show the importance of the usage of operational exercises at English lessons. Methodology of the research is based on empirical method which will be applied in teaching a foreign language and results will present the level of students in accomplishing exercises. Operational exercises will be used by teachers, students and pupils in the foreign language lesson.
Key words: operational exercises, receptive, reproductive, system of exercises, speech activity.
In the modern methodology the process of teaching a foreign language is connected with the quality of accomplishing tasks because of reflection on the speech activity’s progress. In other words, exercises or activities are not just the way of assimilating the language, but also the method of acquirement of the various types of speech activity [1, 49].
According to I.L. Bim exercise is one of the forms of cooperation between teacher and students which is interceded through educational material based on a structure [2, 30-37].
Classification of exercises is one of the intrinsic problems in teaching foreign language.
In 1991 V.A.Bukhbinder offered classification of exercises in generating the skills, habits and separated them into three groups: communicatory, operational and incentive. According to the V.A.Bukhbinder’s opinion the first group of exercises is based on understanding and mastering the educational material. The second fraction provides improvement of connecting operations with materials. Development of speaking skill takes place when students implement the third group of exercises [3, 92-99].
Operational exercises are called as the pre-speech activities because of its function. The requirement of these exercises is the reason of using speech activity at English lessons. Basically, operations should be utilized deliberately, because acquiring the four skills such as speaking, writing, reading, listening and other three habits demands endeavour and exertion from students.
According to S.F. Shatilov basic detail of the content of learning is a material related to language and involves phonetic, grammatical and lexical habits. Next component of learning is learning operational rules accompanied by the linguistic material which includes formation rules, the application of language units in advancing skills and habits. The third part of the maintenance comprises skills and habits which ensures assuming the several types of linguistic activity [4, 51-52].
L.V.Sherba considered the language as a standard of new words including the system and the principle in creating language units [5, 9].
According to his point of view speaking in any foreign language is possible due to the people’s language pattern and their practice. Speaking in foreign language occurs only when the linguistic material begins transforming into the language and the student starts to understand grammatical and lexical rules [6, 78].
K.D. Ushinski mentioned that classification of exercises is one of the key which takes to success, and absence of this system shows the result of unpleasant consequences despite of multiple and long-term exercises [7, 120].
Achievement in education provides the insurance only with the help of advisable system of activities like operational exercises.
The issue of coming up with the up-to-date system of exercises for teaching foreign language belongs to topical problem.
The basic peculiarities of the operational activities are:
1) The whole skills of foreign language are accustomed by implementation of these exercises.
2) Activities can give phased and organized formation of grammatical habits simultaneously with the improvement of the verbal speech.
3) Each exercise is consisted of the data that is included in following task in a mechanical structure.
There are two types of operational exercises: susceptible and reproductive.
Susceptible activities comprise the following types of tasks:
1) Foreknowledge– anticipating the construction and figurative image of the phrase.
2) Suppose – comprehending the word’s significance with the interference of words in the native language, scope and also transforming the characteristics.
3) Sensation- these activities can be accomplished by audio and visual aids.
4) Matching – studying the words with the usage of comparison.
5) Grasping- tasks which activates the comprehension.
Reproductive exercises involve these activities:
1) Imitating activities are useful in development of the phonetic habits. It is a common, and frequent listening and pronunciation of examples such as short reply for a question, compliance and verification.
2) Replacement tasks offer various lexical materials which aids to form good memory of the learners.
3) Conversion exercises demand learners to remember and utilize original structure word and phrase in accordance with lexical units such as analogy statement, cross – examining.
4) Reproductive tasks give opportunity to students in selection of independent replies to the questions .
Operational exercises are helpful for teachers, students and also to pupils. Its importance gets visible when learners make some errors and cannot speak fluently.
Operational exercises are performed via visual aids like specious, diagrammatic or verbal-schematic, explanatory.
– Specious activities are speaking patterns, lexical charts, texts, aphorisms, sayings and etc.
– Diagrammatic or verbal-schematic are the standards of speech samples. Schematic tools have to reply to request of efficient guidance.
– Explanatory materials involve photos, drawings, paintings, numbers, dates, symbols and posters. These tools should be appropriate in order to catch the students’ attention participation, and also it should match to the students’ age and interest [9, 22-23].
Learners face obstacles in grammatical habits and productive skills. It is considerable for teachers that learners will digest learning materials with the help of operational activities.
To conclude, operational activities are necessary for teachers, pupils and students in learning foreign language. The system of exercises provides to develop all the skills of foreign language. Skills and habits of foreign language should be acquires by operational exercises in achieving desired results. All the obstacles that a lot of learners face will be solved through the implementation of operational exercises.
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